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INFS1200 – Assignment 1, part 1

Results | Sample Solution | My Submission


Marks distribution

Marks histogram

My Result 6.35 out of 8
Mean 5.654198473
Standard Error 0.083451297
Median 5.6
Mode 6.85
Standard Deviation 1.350777244
Sample Variance 1.824599164
Kurtosis 0.575120112
Skewness -0.625109979
Range 7
Minimum 1
Maximum 8
Count 262
Confidence Level (95.0%) 0.164323315

Sample Solution

Note that the solution below is “a” possible design of the given universe of discourse. You may have made different design choices in your assignment which may be correct too.

Possible solution ER diagram

1 – Strong Entities | 2 – Weak Entities | 3 2- 1:1 Relationships | 4 –1:N Relationships | 5 – M:N Relationships | 6 – Multivalued Attributes | 7 – n-ary Relationships | 8 – Specialisation

STEP 1 – Strong Entities

The following tables are created:

Company (ABN, Email, URL, Name, Address)

Bus (Reg#, Weight, Type, Model, Make, Seats, Date)

Route (Route#)

City (Postcode, Name, State)

STEP 2 – Weak Entities

The following tables are created:

Branch (Int. Number, ABN, Mgr. Name, Address, Phone, Fax, Email)

Stop (St. no, Postcode)

Trip (Route#, Reg#, Date, Driver, Assistant)

STEP 3 – 1:1 Relationships


STEP 4 – 1:N Relationships

Foreign keys are added to existing tables:

Company (ABN, Email, URL, Name, Address, Postcode)

Bus (Reg#, Weight, Type, Model, Make, Seats, Date, ABN)

Trip (Route#, Reg#, Date, Driver, Assistant)

Route (Route#, Start_stop_no., Start_postcode, End_stop_no, End_postcode)

Branch (Int. Number, ABN, Mgr. Name, Address, Phone, Fax, Email, Postcode)

STEP 5 – M:N Relationships

The following tables are created:

Approved_For (ABN, Route#)

Intermediate_stops (Route#, St. no, Postcode)

STEP 6 – Multivalued Attributes

The following tables are created:

Company_phone (ABN, Phone)

Company_fax (ABN, Fax)

STEP 7 – n-ary Relationships


STEP 8 – Specialisation


Final Schema

Possible solution mapped schema
Sample solution may be Copyright © 2003 The University of Queensland, Australia
Sourced from http://www.itee.uq.edu.au/~infs1200//Assignments/Assignment1-Part1-Solution.doc

My Submission

Give specification assumptions (if any), or any special notes/comments that you feel would help us better assess your work

ER diagram and final relational schema are presented as images. It was found to be too unreliable to use Word drawing tools, as changing font size and various other things would destroy the alignment of elements, so an image was used instead. It was not feasible to use a separate line for each foreign key in the relational mapping, so lines have been combined where possible.

A few assumptions were made:

  • Buses are operated only by one company.
  • Drivers and assistants work for bus companies.
  • Phone and fax numbers need to be identified as belonging to a department, person, etc. Dept attribute was added to phone and fax, which represents who or what the phone or fax will connect to. This prevents a random list of phone numbers, which would not be much use to anyone – having to ring each one until they connected to sales department, for example.
  • Only one driver and assistant are assigned to one bus per date. Date could be changed to a begin date/time and end date/time if more dynamic assignment was needed.
  • Route numbers may not be unique across different companies.
  • State can be inferred from the postcode.
  • Route beginning and ending is a single attribute. If necessary, this could be divided into postcode, city etc.
  • Only one email and website exists per company and per branch. This is because multiple emails and websites were not specified in the assignment specification, but multiple phone and fax numbers were.
  • Assistant may not be a bus driver, and bus drive may not be an assistant. If an assistant is always capable of being a bus driver, and vice versa, assistant could be merged with driver.
  • Street is an atomic value that may contain street numbers and various address information.
  • Driver and assistant both have unique ID’s that are unique outside their company, possibly a social security ID or similar.
  • Phones and faxes may not be unique across companies (in the case of internal phones etc). Also, that retrieval of a phone or fax number would always be joined with the company that uses the number; this is why the unique company ABN has been included with each phone and fax number – which should improve efficiency.

I am not a great admirer of inserting large images into Word documents, as they sometimes do not appear as they should. Should the images in this document are unreadable or otherwise do not work, I have provided the copies in the zip file.

Names for entities, relationships and attributes are not necessarily the same on the ER diagram and the relational schema. The min max notation has been used, with double lines to indicate weak entities and their identifying relationship. Total participation is shown by the min max notation and not by double lines, although the lines between a weak entity and its identifying relationship have been shown as double lines. Multi-valued attributes “phone” and “fax” also have double lines. Primary keys have been marked with an underline, and partial keys with a dashed underline. These are not necessarily all possible keys, but only those chosen to identify their entities. Attribute “city” was not included as a key for entity “Stops” in the ER diagram, but while designing the relational schema, it was found to be necessary to use it as part of the key. The ER diagram has not been changed to show “city” as a key, as I did not feel it necessary to use “city” as a key when designing the ER diagram.


Official Use Only
ER (/5)                       
Mapping (/3)   
TOTAL (/8) 6.35


ER Diagram

Entity relationionship diagram



Steps taken:

Initial construction and subsequent working was done in pencil and paper, and as I don’t have a scanner, I cannot submit it.

Relational schema


The following relational diagram was also used to assist the design of the above, but was not submitted.

Entity relational diagram
All work © Copyright 2003 Ned Martin

18-Sep-2003 - Updated with results